© 2020 Informa UK Limited, an Informa Group Company. (Premise 2) The question "Is it true that X is good?" In the century since its introduction, the open question argument has faced a battery of objections. The open question argument is the heart of G.E. Similarly, many moral naturalists argue that "rightness" can be discovered as an a posteriori truth, by investigating the different claims, like that of pleasure being the good, or of duty being the good. Obviously, analytic equivalency is of no relevance here. is not meaningless (i.e. It ( ... ) explains the major replies to these challenges offered by realists, and locates these challenges within the broader debate over what sort of semantic theories might be plausible candidates for a normative realist to adopt. Open-question argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search The open-question argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in §13 of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property of goodness with some non-moral property, X, whether natural (e.g. By definition, X=Y, and unlike in your water example we learn nothing more from are natural properties; roughly, the sorts of properties that can be investigated by the natural sciences. [8] Failing such an account, the postulation of moral value will be egregious. can be meaningful. Cite this entry as: (2014) Open Question Argument. This is done by invoking rightness and wrongness to explain certain empirical phenomena, and then discovering a posteriori whether maximizing utility occupies the relevant explanatory role. "[5] With this description for "right," we can then investigate which acts accomplish this: e.g. God's command). As J. L. Mackie argued with his Argument from Queerness, moral values (i.e. There is a difference between the sense of an object and the reference (i.e. it is an open question). We can then conclude that we have learned that "right" refers to "maximizing utility" through a posteriori means. I have just added archive links to one external link on Open-question argument. Shortly before (in section §11), Moore said if you define good as pleasure (or any other naturalistic property) you could substitute “good” for “pleasure” anywhere it occurs. Moore was a British philosopher who outlined his theory in Principia Ethica. 1 Minute Drucken Teilen Metzler Lexikon Philosophie: Open-question-argument Anzeige (Argument der offenen Frage). I always thought the Open Question Argument, whatever its merits, depended on the identity of properties. This explanation is far simpler, given the ontological difficulties surrounding moral value. However, the above account of a sort of a posteriori moral search is unsatisfactory in that normal value, and not moral value, can be used to explain the relevant events. The type of question Moore refers to in this argument is an identity question, "Is it true that X is Y?" The open question argument is a very influential argument. God's command). would be a closed question. The purpose of this paper is to defend G. E. Moore's open question argument, understood as an argument directed against analytic reductionism, the view that moral properties are analytically reducible to non-moral properties. In Defence of the Open Question Argument. oughts) that exist in the natural world (of facts), is highly queer, and we ought to favour a completely naturalistic explanation instead.[7]. If you belong to such an institution, please log in or find out more about how to order. This is a closed statement for any mathematical equation. THE OPEN QUESTION ARGUMENT 47 Questions about good have thus far remained open, the new naturalists think, because earlier forms of naturalism failed to fasten upon the right content, and thereby, to capture whatever it is [3] Thus, if we understand Concept C, and Concept C* can be analysed in terms of Concept C, then we should grasp concept C* by virtue of our understanding of Concept C. Yet it is obvious that such understanding of Concept C* only comes about through the analysis proper. [2] The Darwall-Gibbard-Railton reformulation argues for the impossibility of equating a moral property with a non-moral one using the internalist theory of motivation. The question “Is X really just Y” is an open question for any Y. (Premise 2) A cognitively sound and competent speaker of English (or whatever language the OQA is made in) can understand that Action X* produces X, yet not pursue X*. [4] Thus, we can understand a claim like "goodness is identical with pleasure" as an a posteriori identity claim similar to "Water is H2O". So, a situation that can be explained by the existence of real moral value (e.g. In Finite and Infinite Goods, Robert Adams defends his metaphysical account that good is resemblance to God via an ‘open-question’ intuition. The question "This is H2O but is it water?" Moore's non-naturalism comprised two main theses. God's command). In: Michalos A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. the paradox of analysis), rather than revealing anything special about value. Closely connected to his non-naturalism wasthe epistemological view that our knowledge of moral truth… Caj Strandberg - 2004 - The Journal of Ethics 8 (2):179-196. Such a question is an open question if a conceptually competent speaker can question this; otherwise the question is closed. the fulfillment of preferences, the tendency towards social stability) can also be explained by non-moral value. Moore’s case against ethical naturalism. In response to this, the open question argument can be reformulated. One was the realistthesis that moral and more generally normative judgements – likemany of his contemporaries, Moore did not distinguish the two —are objectively true or false. both a belief and a desire are required to motivate). some non-moral property) might well be analytically equivalent to the good, and still the question of "Is X good?" Source: ‘What is Good?What is Bad? pleasure) or supernatural (e.g. Another problem with the a posteriori moral search is that we lack an epistemic account of how we access moral facts. Internalism is supported by the Belief-Desire-Intention model of motivation, whereby desire (i.e. Let’s dive right in with the Philosophy revision! G.E.Moore’s Open Question Argument (the OQA, also known as the Naturalistic Fallacy) is famous and widely considered to be the foundation of Metaethics. is intelligible and so, in that limited sense, whether or not water is H2O is an open question; note that this does not address the issue of significance. The open question argument is the heart of G.E. False. [6] A citizen living on the frontiers of the Wild West is told by the sheriff that his brother is the Masked Man who has recently been robbing banks. Thus Moore begs the question in the second premise. pleasure) or meta-physical (e.g. pleasure) or meta-physical (e.g. The citizen protests that he understands who his brother is, and who the Masked Man is supposed to be, and can meaningfully ask, "Is my brother the Masked Man?" If we identify some natural or metaphysical property, such as promoting the survival of the species or producing pleasure or pleasing God (X) with the moral property of goodness (Y), so that they are one and the same (X = Y), then it would not be intelligible to ask : 'Ψ is X but is it Y ?' If internalism is true, then the OQA avoids begging the question against the naturalist, and succeeds in showing that the good cannot be equated to some other property. But that does not lead us to conclude that water is not H2O. The most influential defences link Moore’s argument to the difficulty that naturalistic ethical realists face in explaining the practical role of ethical concepts in deliberation. Every competent history of 20th Century moral philosophy begins with a discussion of G. E. Moore’s Open Question Argument (or “OQA”). open question(オープンクエスチョン)とは。意味や解説、類語。回答の範囲を制限しない質問。「はい」「いいえ」などの選択肢がなく、回答者が自由に考えて答える質問。「休暇にはどこへ行きたいか」「なぜそう思うか」といった質問 But what the Open Question Argument is supposed to rule out is that “good” and “ ” pick out, in virtue of semantic equivalence, not two distinct and … It is, however, unclear what this intuition amounts to. Critics of Moore's arguments sometimes claim that he is appealing to general puzzles concerning analysis (cf. You're right in that the open question argument presupposes the fallaciousness of naturalism, but the argument you suggest doesn't seem valid. Introductory Comments. It’s still controversial whether good is the same thing as pleasure, etc. He assumes that the question is a meaningful one (i.e. Moore’s case against ethical naturalism. It is assumed that analytic equivalency will result in meaningless analysis. 1 The Open Question Argument: What it Isn’t; and What it Is1 1. "Water is H2O" is an identity claim that is known to be true a posteriori (i.e., it was discovered via empirical investigation). Thus, X (i.e. Open-question-argument Lesedauer ca. Open question argument: Whenever identity of the good with a natural property is claimed, the question of value that always remains is – but is it really good? Another example is "redness" being identical to certain phenomena of electromagnetism. The Open Question Argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in §13 of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property good with some non-moral property, whether naturalistic (e.g. However, "Is the morning star the same thing as the evening star?" assumes the conclusion in a premise) was first raised by W. This is the epistemic aspect of Mackie's Argument from Queerness. The Open Question Argument claims that any attempt to identify morality with some set of observable, natural properties will always be an open question (unlike, say, a horse, which can be defined in terms of observable properties). An explanation of Bertrand Russell's Barren Tautology argument and G. E. Moore's Open Question against goodness as a property. Access to the full content is only available to members of institutions that have purchased access. The fundamental question: What is ‘good’? The open-question argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in §13 of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property of goodness with some non-moral property, X, whether naturalistic (e.g. Put another way, what Moore is saying is that any attempt to define good in terms of a naturalistic property fails because all definitions can be transformed into closed questions (the subject and predicate being conceptually identical; it is given in language itself that the two terms mean the same thing); however, all purported naturalistic definitions of good are transformable into open questions. Moore further argued that if this is true, then moral facts cannot be reduced to natural properties and that therefore ethical naturalism is false. (Premise 1) If X is good, then X will in itself motivate an individual to pursue it. Ex: Is 2 really just 1+1? God's command). are natural properties; roughly, the sorts of properties that can be investigated by the natural sciences. that it is an open question). According to a standard view, this argument set the stage for the next hundred years of philosophical reflection on the meanings of the terms of Please take a moment to review my edit . pleasure) or meta-physical (e.g. Ethical naturalism is the view that goodness, rightness, etc. The open-question argument claims that any attempt to identify morality with some set of observable, natural properties will always be an open question (unlike, say, a … The phenomenal influence of G. E. Moore's "open question" argument on twentieth century metaethics may now seem undeserved.2 On one important interpretation, for instance, Moore's argument for … To argue for the special motivational effects of moral beliefs is to commit the fallacy of special pleading. The open-question argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in §13 of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property of goodness with some non-moral property, X, whether naturalistic (e.g. Normal value arises from the relationship between desire and a state of affairs. In 1903, British philosopher G. E. Moore presented the open-question argument to refute the idea of ethical naturalism (essentially that moral properties can be reduced to non-moral facts). You may add {{ cbignore }} after the link to keep me from modifying it, if I keep adding bad data, but formatting bugs should be reported instead. God's command). This is discovered by empirical investigation. The Open Question Argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in §13 of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property good with some non-moral property, whether naturalistic (e.g. God's command). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing List of lists. In this post, I want to discuss G. E. Moore's famous open question argument. Despite these challenges, some contemporary philosophers claim that the core of Moore’s argument can be salvaged. pleasure) or meta-physical (e.g. [5] For example, they argue that since right actions contingently have certain effects e.g. The argument takes the form of syllogistic modus tollens: (Premise 1) If X is good, then the question "Is it true that X is good?" pleasure) or meta-physical (e.g. Open Question arguments employ tests of cognitive significance--for example, they ask whether someone can believe that Ronnie has a reason without believing anything about Ronnie's desires, or conversely.... [T]his is a good test for whether the concepts are identical. The Frege sense-reference distinction can understood in layman's terms by using the analogy of the Masked Man. Moore claims that, for any candidate naturalistic account of an ethical term according to which ‘good’ had the same meaning as some naturalistic term A, we might without confusion ask: ‘I see that this act is A, but is it good?’ Moore claimed that the existence of such open questions shows that ethical naturalism is mistaken. For example, "I know he is a vegetarian, but does he eat meat?" As I understand it, the open question argument allegedly creates a problem for certain reductive theories of genuinely normative properties (such as the goodness or ought-to-be-doneness of an action) to certain descriptive or non-normative properties (such as caused pain-minimization). The Knowledge Argument, the Open Question Argument, and the Moral Problem November 2009 Synthese 171(1):25-45 DOI: 10.1007/s11229-008-9378-7 … Mathematics would be the prime example: mathematics is tautological and its claims are true by definition, yet we can develop new mathematical conceptions and theorems. Ethical naturalism is the view that goodness, rightness, etc. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Open-question_argument" (); it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The argument takes the form of syllogistic modus tollens: that some proposition ought to be made or kept true) and belief (i.e. [1] Since analytic equivalency, for two objects X and Y, logically results in the question "Is it true that X is Y?" Frankena. The Open Question Argument To support his idea that good can’t merely be equated with natural properties, Moore proposes a thought experiment which has … Springer, Dordrecht. The main assumption within the open question argument can be found within premise 1. This evidently presupposes the internalist theory of motivation (i.e. being causally responsible for a tendency towards social stability—so it follows we can fix the term "right" refer to the empirical description "the property of acts, whatever it is, that is causally responsible for their tendency towards social stability. 2009 style! Every competent history of 20th Century moral philosophy begins with a discussion of G. E. Moore's Open Question Argument (or "OQA"). This paper introduces the two most influential semantic challenges to normative realism: the open question argument, and the Moral Twin Earth argument. The other was the autonomy-of-ethicsthesis that moral judgements are sui generis, neitherreducible to nor derivable from non-moral, that is, scientific ormetaphysical judgements. being meaningless (by Moore's own argument), to say that the question is meaningless is to concede analytic equivalency. is an open question; the question cannot be deduced from the conceptual terms alone. Unsurprisingly, the argument is attacked on the grounds of the supremeacy of internalism. Ergo premise 1 does not hold and the argument falls. The idea that Moore begs the question (i.e. (e.g., “pleasure”). Moore’s Open Question Argument Moore defends his non-naturalism by arguing that good couldn’t be identical to any natural property, because any such identity claim seems to invite an “open question.” Think about questions (2003) An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics (Great Britain: Polity), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory, by Hugh LaFollette (Editor), p. 28, Mackie, J. L. (1977) Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong (Great Britain: Penguin Books), TIP: The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, http://www.alonzofyfe.com/article_du.shtml, https://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Open_question_argument?oldid=137648. that some proposition is true) combine to form intention, and thereby, action. The matter is an empirical one, which the citizen must investigate a priori. formulation by Moore In ethics: Moore and the naturalistic fallacy ”) The “open-question argument,” as it came to be known, was in fact used by Sidgwick and to some extent by the 18th-century intuitionists, but Moore’s statement of it somehow caught the imagination of philosophers during the first half of the 20th century. It has motivated very diverse metaethical theories, such as non-cognitivism, intuitionism, and anti-realist theories. [citation needed], Miller, A. those actions that maximize utility. The Open Question Argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in 13 of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property good with some non-moral property, whether naturalistic (e.g. People tend also to objectify such value, into categorical moral value, though this is fallacious. (Conclusion) X is not (analytically equivalent to) good. a belief can itself motivate), in contrast to the externalist theory of motivation, also known as the Humean theory of motivation (i.e. G.E Moore's Open Question Argument functions as an objection towards naturalist moral realism (also referred to as "naturalism"), which is the belief that moral properties exist objectively within the world as natural properties - that is, a moral property such as "goodness" may be identical to a natural property such as "pleasure giving". This begs the question and the open question argument thus fails. is meaningless. However, “pleasure is good” is a meaningful, informative statement; but “good is good” (after making the substitution) is an empty, non-informative tautology. The absurdity of dismissing the claim as such is apparent. the object itself).