Lepidus had in fact already reached the peak of his power. With that settled, Lepidus is sent to collect Caesar's will, to see if they can divert some of his money their way. Octavian was the only surviving commander of the forces that had defeated Antony at Mutina (modern Modena). He served to balance the power of Antony and young Octavius Caesar, because he was a threat to neither Octavius nor Antony. With the triumvirs in possession of overwhelming numerical superiority, Decimus Brutus’ remaining forces melted away, leaving the triumvirs in complete control of the western provinces. [18] In the following year there were disturbances in Etruria. During the Social War Lepidus fought in northern Italy under Pompeius Strabo, who was consul in 89 BC. [10] Pompey intervened and ensured a state funeral for the late dictator. —Upon condition Publius shall not live, Who is your sister’s son, Mark Antony. Their works, too, have survived only in fragments. Sallust wrote that Lepidus' actions led to the interrex Appius Claudius and the proconsul Catulus to be ordered to protect the city. After Antony’s defeat at the Battle of Mutina, the Senate sent word that Lepidus’ troops were no longer needed. [15], In 77 BC, when Lepidus had left for his proconsular command (he was allocated the provinces of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul to the north of Italy), his political opponents moved against him. Spell. Appian wrote that after a long resistance, he was let in the town by treachery. These views are reflected in Shakespeare’s portrayal of Lepidus in Julius Caesar, in which Antony describes him as “a slight, unmeritable man, meet to be sent on errands”, comparable to a donkey required to bear burdens. Upon condition Publius shall not live, Who is your sister's son, Mark Antony. LEPIDUS. After negotiation, he suggested an alternative: Octavian could have Sicily and Africa, if he agreed to give Lepidus back his old territories in Spain and Gaul, which should legally have been his according to the Lex Titia. the Ultimate Decree) which called on the interrex Appius Claudius and the proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus to take necessary measures to preserve public safety. Decimus Brutus called him a “weathercock” and Velleius Paterculus called him “the most fickle of mankind”, and incapable of command. His father was the first leader of the revived populares faction after the death of Sulla, and led an unsuccessful rebellion against the optimates. Lepidus and Junia Secunda had at least one child, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger. Write. He enriched himself during Sulla's proscriptions. He had family ties to this province. Lepidus as triumvir He was the son of a prominent politician (d. c. 77 bc) of the same name. Sending Lepidus for Caesar’s will, Antony expresses contempt for Lepidus and plans with Octavius to raise an army to fight the troops of Brutus and Cassius. ANTONY Julius Caesar. When in February 44 BC Caesar was elected dictator for life by the senate, he made Lepidus Master of the Horse for the second time. He wrote that "Lepidus gathered together the dispossessed, whose land had been taken over by Sulla after his victory to make new colonies for his soldiers, and also the children of the proscribed. Lepidus fled to Sardinia. According to Lepidus’s biographer Richard D. Weigel, Lepidus’ willingness to give up his legions inevitably consigned him to a subsidiary role in the triumvirate. See also our There is no mention of Pompey. ) Lepidus thereafter administered both Hispania and Narbonese Gaul. Exit LEPIDUS. The project's main effort is to survey ancient and modern texts and to extract excerpts describing various relevant events for analysis and mapping. Octavian, now known as “Augustus”, is said to have belittled him by always asking for his vote last. "[27], The entry in Livy's Periochae also seems to indicate that it was Catulus who ended the conflict. [13] Presumably the men who bought the confiscated property would resist such a measure. with an international group of editorial assistants. In an entry in the chronological tables of St. Jerome Hieronymus, it is stated that Lepidus was declared a public enemy.[24]. Granius Licinianus wrote that Lepidus passed a corn law without opposition (it provided a corn allowance of five modii for the people) and made many other promises: to recall the exiles, to rescind the acts of Sulla, and to restore to its owners the land which had been used for military colonies. He started his cursus honorum as triumvir monetalis, overseeing the minting of coins, from c. 62–58 BC. Lepidus was to become Consul and was confirmed as Pontifex Maximus. [22] Brutus eventually surrendered. The Chronicle of the Fall of the Roman Empire Lepidus became one of the triumvirs partly because he had a large number of soldiers under his command and also because Antony needed him. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar’s house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine How to cut off some charge in legacies. Weigel argues that these views are coloured by evidence that was in large part politically motivated, and that Lepidus’s career was no more perfidious or inconsistent than that of the other major players in the power struggles at the time. LEPIDUS What, shall I find you here? . It is unclear whether Lepidus’ troops forced him to join with Antony, whether that was always Lepidus’s plan, or whether he arranged matters to gauge the situation and make the best deal. Octavius has interacted with Lepidus as if he will have an equal share of power with them In what way is Antony's behavior toward Lepidus similar to his manipulation of the crowd at Caesar's funeral? He added: "when weapons were brought together and Catulus was not slower ...[missing text]... Where anyone seemed to be near him as he went beside the coast and the lake, he avoided the tops of the mountains. Antony and Lepidus met with Octavian on an island in a river, possibly near Mutina but more likely near Bologna, their armies lined along opposite banks. Test. ANTONY He shall not live; look, with a spot I damn him. What is the relationship among Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus in Julius Caesar? Gravity. He was the father of the triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and of one of the consuls for 50 BC Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. Use this worksheet and quiz to learn about Lepidus in Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar Act IV. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? Lepidus also agreed to the proscriptions that led to the death of Cicero and other die-hard opponents of Caesar’s faction. Read every line of Shakespeare’s original text alongside a modern English translation. Florus thought that this would have been fair if he had done this without destabilising Rome. PLAY. OCTAVIUS Or here, or at the Capitol. Licinianus wrote that after the inhabitants of Faesulae attacked the veterans in the colony and reclaimed their land (see section above), "[t]he consuls were assigned an army and set off for Etruria, as the senate instructed." LEPIDUS I do consent--OCTAVIUS Prick him down, Antony. One of the ringleaders of the conspiracy, Gaius Cassius Longinus, had argued for the killing of Lepidus and Mark Antony as well, but Marcus Junius Brutus had overruled him, saying the action was an execution and not a political coup. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar's house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine How to cut off some charge in legacies. Why do they want Caesar's will? LEPIDUS. [8], Lepidus was elected consul for the year 78 BC. In this way he collected a large army ..." He also wrote that Lepidus "also made himself popular with the common people, as the defender of the people's freedom, by bestowing many gifts on them, both publicly and individually. After Lepidus’s fall from power, he is referred to as the “poor third” and “fool Lepidius”. Antony suggests that, as a way of saving money, they examine Caesar’s will to see if they can redirect some of his funds. Meanwhile, Pompey had penned up Marcus Junius Brutus, one of Lepidus's commanders, in Mutina. He also wanted to return the estates which had been confiscated from the men Sulla had executed and sold to private individuals (the proscriptions). shall . As soon as Lepidus has gone, Antony begins to talk trash about him. Lepidus married Junia Secunda, sister of Marcus Junius Brutus and Junia Tertia, Cassius Longinus’s wife. Antony has a paper with names on it and he says, "These many, then, shall die; their names are pricked" (4.1.1). 40.). Lepidus prevaricated, recommending negotiation with Antony. He also had men who had taken part in Lepidus' rebellion and had fled to Sertorius in Hispania recalled. Lepidus agrees, on the condition that Mark Antony's nephew is also killed for being involved in the assassination. He secured Caesar’s appointment as dictator, a position Caesar used to get himself elected as Consul, resigning the dictatorship after eleven days. He became the third member of the Second Triumvirate, which was recognized in November 43 by the People's Assembly (Lex Titia). Humiliatingly, Lepidus’ legions in Sicily defected to Octavian and Lepidus himself was forced to submit to him. [26] In the Perochiae, Lepidus was expelled from Italy by Catulus and died in Sardinia "where he had, in vain, tried to stir up a war. Pompey, invested as a legate with propraetorial powers, quickly recruited an army from among his veterans and threatened Lepidus, who had marched his army to Rome, from the north. Angered by the betrayal, some inhabitants killed themselves and some set fire to the town. Antony and Lepidus now had to deal with Octavian Caesar, Caesar’s great-nephew and adopted son in Caesar’s will. He fell ill and “died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.”[20] The Brutus in question was Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder, the father of Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, one of the leaders of the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar. What is ironic about this? Please view our When Antony attempted to take control of Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) by force and displace Decimus Brutus, the Senate led by Cicero called on Lepidus to support Brutus – one of Caesar’s killers. . However, in agreeing to yield seven of his legions and allow Octavian and Antony the glory of defeating Brutus and Cassius, he had consigned himself to a minor role in the future. He started his cursus honorum as a praetor in 49 BC, was placed in charge of Rome while Caesar defeated Pompey in Spain,[3] and was rewarded with the consulship in 46 BC after the defeat of the Pompeians in the East. However, this was brought to an end by Triarius, the governor of Sardinia, who fought Lepidus in several battles, defended his province effectively and cut off the towns. After the defeat of Sextus Pompey, Lepidus had stationed his legions in Sicily and a dispute arose over whether he or Octavian had authority on the island. There is no mention of any participation in the conflict by Decimus Junius Brutus and Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, the consuls of that year (77BC), who also had military command. [11] Lepidus gathered the remnants of the weakened Marian faction (see Sulla's first and Sulla's second civil war), and those who had escaped Sulla's proscriptions.[12]. He also wrote: "Lepidus ...[missing text]... into the mountains ...[missing text]... led back his army." When he refused to return they declared him an enemy of the state and passed a Consultum Ultimum (a.k.a. His wife Junia was, however, implicated. When the Perusine War broke out in 41 BC, Octavian tasked Lepidus with the defence of Rome against Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony’s brother. He would assume control of Rome while they were away. However, Cassius Dio hints that Lepidus helped Paullus to escape. He fled to Etruria. Lepidus agrees to the death of his brother if Antony will agree to allow his nephew to be killed. However, Catulus and Pompey had already occupied the Milvian bridge and the Janiculum Hill. In 37 BC the treaty of Tarentum formally renewed the Triumvirate for another five years. Lepidus was defeated in a battle at the Milvian bridge[23] and then declared an enemy of the senate. Lepidus' forces were defeated in a battle near the Milvian Bridge and as a result his rebellion failed. A distant relative of Julius Caesar who is collaborating with Antony and Lepidus for the takeover of Rome. He agrees. Catulus, who had recruited an army at Rome, now took on Lepidus directly defeating him in a battle north of Rome. Gravity. However, a few sentences later he wrote that it was his army which switched sides. He negotiated a deal with the rebel leader, quaestor Marcellus, and helped defeat an attack by the Mauretanian king Bogud. Lepidus was probably sitting next to Caesar at the time. Terms in this set (54) How does Antony react to the suggestion that his nephew Publius should be killed? Julius Caesar Characters & Descriptions . He expresses trust in Lepidus and is less disillusioned than Antony. I do consent— 2. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (born c. 89 or 88 BC, died late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was triumvir with Octavian (the future Augustus) and Mark Antony, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic. Prick him down, Antony. Lepidus had to plead with his former enemy Lucius Saenius Balbinus to grant her bail. Lepidus was expelled from Italy and went to Sardinia. An excellent soldier if not the most intelligent of men, he becomes the third ruler of Rome along with Octavius and Antony after Caesar’s death. Why does Antony send Lepidus to Caesar's house to get the will? [31], For other people named Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, see, Brennan, T.C., The Praetorship in the Roman Republic, p. 507, Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 35.12; 36.49,109, Julius Exsuperantius, On the civil Wars of Marius, Lepidus and Sertorius, 35, St. Jerome Hieronymus, Chronological Tables, 1940, Julius Exsuperantius, On the civil Wars of Marius, Lepidus and Sertorius, 38-42, Asconius, Five detailed descriptions of speeches of Cicero, 19, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marcus_Aemilius_Lepidus_(consul_78_BC)&oldid=979928681, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Latest answer posted February 12, 2009 at 1:36:35 AM Pompey then marched against Lepidus' rear catching him near Cosa, but although he defeated him Lepidus was still able to embark part of his army and retreat to Sardinia.[21]. He was prevented from entering Rome, so he prepared his army for battle. Mark Antony and the other Caesar supporters take up the cause of avenging Caesar's assassination. Later historians were particularly critical of him for agreeing to the death of his brother Lucius Paullus, a supporter of Cicero. Caesar and the Senate were sufficiently impressed by Lepdius’s judicial mixture of negotiation and surgical military action that they granted him a Triumph. Antony thinks Lepidus is weak, so it's a shame that he'll be sharing power with Antony and Octavius in the triumvirate. Lucius, with superior forces, easily took the city. This database, He died peacefully in late 13 BC or early 12 BC. ANTONY This is a slight unmeritable man, Meet to be sent on errands: is it fit, The three-fold world divided, he should stand [1] This brought him into conflict with the optimates whom Sulla had put back in power. Take the quiz to go over things like the role of Lepidus in the play and where he goes once Caesar is killed. Lepidus had mobilised support in a large part of Italy and sent Marcus Junius Brutus to hold Gallia Cisalpina with an army. Lepidus was rewarded with the consulship in 46 BC after the defeat of the Pompeians in the East. [28], It can be noted that this conflict was fought the year after the consulship of Lepidus and Catulus (the consuls were elected annually). The triumvirate’s legal life span was for five years. Lepidus appears to have been genuinely shocked when Antony provocatively offered Caesar a crown at the Lupercalia festival, an act that helped to precipitate the conspiracy to kill Caesar. A friend of Caesar. In 36 BC, during the Sicilian revolt, Lepidus raised a large army of 14 legions to help subdue Sextus Pompey. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar’s house. 3 Educator answers. Then he sent another letter “denouncing the man after he had been put to death.” Meanwhile Lepidus went to Rome to demand a second consulship, “terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers.” However, at that moment Pompey’s letter which announced that he had brought the war to an end arrived. According to Plutarch, this was with the support of Pompey, who canvassed for him against the wishes of Sulla, who did not trust Lepidus. Lepidus exits. It is likely that the factional conflict that split Rome made the election of new consuls difficult. Julius Caesar - Act IV. On 22 September 36 BC Lepidus was stripped of all his offices except that of Pontifex Maximus. page for info on data we are building upon. charge expense >>> LEPIDUS : 4.1.10 : What, shall I find you here? Léonie Hayne says that he acted “skillfully and consistently in support of Antony and (indirectly) of the Caesarian faction”. Stable URL: Brutus received a cavalry escort and withdrew to Regium Lepidi, a small town by the River Po, where he started to whip up further support for Lepidus. He was gaining the upper hand, but Pompey arrived form Gaul and crushed his enemy. He captured Norba, in Latium, which had sided with Sulla's enemies, the Marians. Lepidus continued to assure the Senate of his loyalty, but engaged in negotiations with Antony. Lepidus joined the College of Pontiffs as a child. kjones12345. (Lepidus wants to know if they will : still be "here"—maybe Antony's house—when he : OCTAVIUS: returns.) Lepidus was defeated and went to Sardinia, "where he died of a wasting disease. LEPIDUS Upon condition Publius shall not live, Who is your sister's son, Mark Antony. [14] In highly rhetorical passages, Sallust wrote that in Etruria there were smouldering fires of war and mentioned pillaging and burning. Antony, however, marched towards Lepidus’s province with his remaining forces. In Antony and Cleopatra he is portrayed as extremely gullible, asking Antony silly questions about Egypt while very drunk. [14] With regard to the land, before retiring from political life in 79 BC, Sulla confiscated land from the locals in Campania and Etruria to grant allotments to his veterans who then established a colony (a Roman settlement outside Roman territory). here? When the two armies met, large portions of Lepidus’s forces joined up with Antony. IV,1,1864. After the pacification of the east and the defeat of the assassins’ faction in the Battle of Philippi, during which he remained in Rome, Antony and Octavian took over most of Lepidus’ territories, but granted him rights in the provinces of Numidia and Africa. In Florus' account, Lepidus also wanted to repeal Sulla's acts. Antony then sends Lepidus to obtain Caesar's will so that they can reduce some of the bequests. "[14] The mountains Licinianus referred to must have been in Etruria. [4], Lepidus was the first governor of Sicily under Sulla’s regime. Unlike the First Triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, this one was formally constituted. Lepidus realised that in the following year his oath not to make war on the Sullans would no longer be valid because it was considered that it was binding only during the term of office (which lasted only one year). He was appointed as a praetor in 49 BC, being placed in charge of Rome while Caesar defeated Pompey in Greece. His brother was Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. 59–65. [3] Pliny the Elder thought that he had the most beautiful house in Rome, with marble thresholds and shields with the battle scenes of Troy. They pers… Octavius tells Lepidus that his brother must be killed. [6], Pliny the Elder noted that Lepidus divorced his wife Appuleia. Ronald Syme called him “a flimsy character…perfidious and despised”. Or here, or at the Capitol. In the event of a defeat, Lepidus’ territories would provide a fall-back position. Modern writers have often been equally dismissive. During his governorship of Africa he promoted the distribution of land to veterans, possibly in order to build up a network of clients. LEPIDUS. According to Cicero, he groaned, turned away and had tears in his eyes. Actually understand Julius Caesar Act 4, Scene 1. [20], Appian wrote that there was a conflict between the two consuls and their two factions (the Sullans and the Marians), and that the senate was afraid of both factions. Cicero condemned Lepidus for “wickedness and sheer folly” after he allowed his forces to join with Mark Antony’s after Antony’s initial defeat at the Battle of Mutina. [29] The interrex was an official who was appointed when difficult disputes made holding elections exceedingly difficult. Created by. Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus form a political alliance and take of the rule of Rome as a triumvirate after Caesar's death. Legal Notice In Plutarch's account, Pompey undertook a long siege of Brutus in Mutina. He sided with the aristocracy and was appointed as a commander of an army to confront Lepidus. [25], Asconius Pedianus and an entry in Livy's Periochae also mentioned a conflict in Sardinia. Credits Therefore, it might be that at the beginning of this conflict Rome had no consuls and that they were elected late on during the conflict or afterwards, Pliny the Elder wrote that when Lepidus died, his body was ejected from the funeral pyre by the force of the flames and he was cremated naked on other faggots. IV,1,1862. (in short Alain Gowing has also argued that his actions in Sicily, though “futile”, were no more than an “attempt to regain a position from which he had been unfairly thrust.”. In Antony and Cleopatra, Lepidus will be treated more disdainfully by Antony and eliminated from the Triumvirate, probably by being murdered offstage. Lepidus departs, and Antony asks Octavius if Lepidus is a worthy enough man to rule Rome with him and Octavius. The senate voted him a public thanksgiving festival. Appian, The civil Wars, Book 1, Kessinger Publishing, 2009; Asconius: Commentaries on Speeches of Cicero (Clarendon Ancient History), Oxford University Press, U.S.A., 1993; Florus, Epitome of Roman History (Loeb Classical Library), Loeb, 1929; ASIN: B01A6506H0. 36 – 40). Caesar also made Lepidus magister equitum (“Master of the Horse”), effectively his deputy. Two members of his family had been governors in Sicily in 218 BC and 191 BC respectively. She was related to Lucius Appuleius Saturninus. Plutarch wrote that it was not known whether Brutus betrayed his army or whether his army betrayed him and switched allegiance. Write. While in Spain Lepidus was called upon to act to quell a rebellion against Quintus Cassius Longinus, governor of neighbouring Hispania Ulterior.