By analysis of the real-world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the target tracking problem, regarding power consumption and the quality of tracking information. Besides detailing YanuX's components, the paper also presents YouTube Viewer as a proof-of-concept application based on YanuX. OD matrix is a two-entry table taking census of the zone-to-zone traffic of a geographic area. In: Gellersen, H.-W., Want, R., Schmidt, A. As these networks grow in size and complexity, their management becomes increasingly costly, for instance in terms of equipment, software, and people. The best results were obtained with an algorithm based on SVM, which yielded success rates of 88.54%. A frequently employed form of human-machine interaction is via prompts-for example, prompting the user to perform the next step in a sequence of actions. We claim that this is the first systematic and in-depth research on beacon deployment for unambiguous user positioning. Operation is accomplished by customary mobile devices not equipped with NFC technology but a WLAN interface. The problem of LOD matrix estimation is formulated as a minimisation problem based on probe trajectories and traffic counts and is then solved thanks to the latest advances in nonsmooth convex optimisation.This thesis demonstrates that, with few hypothesis, it is possible to retrieve the LOD matrix for the whole set of users in a road network. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2000), Youssef, M., Agrawala, A.: The Horus WLAN location determination system. Currently, there is a lack of satisfactory technical documentation describing Bluetooth application development and the parts of the Bluetooth specification that are relevant to software developers. prototyping of applications where room-level location Outdoor location-based services are now prevalent due to advances in mobile technology and GPS. The availability of Bluetooth devices for most phones and the existence of a number of GPS equipped phones in a crowd of phone users enable us to design a Bluetooth aided mobile phone localization strategy. With these assumptions taken for granted, theoretical models claim various performance milestones that cannot be achieved in realistic conditions. The convergence of the neural network and the solution feasibility to the defined problem are both theoretically proven. The increasing storage capacity and necessary redundancy of data centers and other large-scale IT facilities has drawn attention to the issue of reducing the power consumption of hard drives. Use of the platform is illustrated through a practical example, which allows a user's current working desktop to follow them as they move around the environment. Further, the role of link-strength Part of Springer Nature. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. We publish our data sets of signal strength samples for the community to freely use in future research. The non-negativity and sparsity of factors are enforced by using the exponential distribution to generate the factors. If such a need does arise, you might want to know where you can manage your device’s Bluetooth discoverability in Windows 10 and we’re pointing you to the right place. The authors draw on their experiences with campus and building-scale location systems to identify the technological and social barriers to a truly ubiquitous deployment. Miscellaneous WLAN-based localization me-thods focus on preferably precise location estimation and tracking. Using the Bluetooth signal strength network of participants at a large-scale music festival (8 days, 130,000+ The results of experiments show that our solution has 98% accuracy in rooms with full Bluetooth sensor coverage, when the target device being stationary for 3 minutes. Datasets that capture this specific aspect of human life have increased in size and availability over the last few years. We have empirically validated the proposed algorithms using wireless LAN and Bluetooth technology. We present experimental With Bluetooth Low Energy beacons, one of the latest technologies for providing proximity and indoor tracking, the current identifiers that characterize a beacon are not sufficient for ordinary users to make informed privacy decisions about the location information that could be shared. So, if you set up a network of tags on your remote, keys, dog, purse then you would be able to find all of your devices. CILoS is an indoor localization system based on CDMA mo- bile phone signal fingerprinting. Thus, the model describes the world much as users themselves would. 105–122. We have instrumented at a fine-grained level and present our findings which show that (i) the energy consumed by the electronics of a drive is just as important as the mechanical energy consumption; (ii) the energy required to access data is affected by physical location on a drive; and (iii) the size of data transfers has measurable effect on power consumption. Plusieurs applications se sont développés et ont permis d’apporter de l’innovation dans plusieurs domaines. Master of Science dissertation, Bruno, R., Delmastro, F.: Design and analysis of a Bluetooth-based indoor localization system. The aim is to enable continuous monitoring of areas where a person moves. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Networks. Just in 2010, 906 million mobile Bluetooth enabled phones had been sold, and in 2011, there were more than 40 million Bluetooth enabled health and medical devices on the market. The implementation, integration and experimentation of this new protocol and it's optimizations, were performed using the textsfWISEBED framework. The lightweight Horus algorithm helps in supporting a larger number of users by running the algorithm at the clients.We discuss the different components of the Horus system and its implementation under two different operating systems and evaluate the performance of the Horus system on two testbeds. In: INFOCOM 2000. Buildings consume a significant portion of the total delivered energy. Date. In: WMASH 2003: Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN (2003), Madhavapeddy, A., Tse, A.: A study of Bluetooth propagation using accurate indoor location mapping. However, little research has been done to understand the properties of Bluetooth wireless signal amongst the current Bluetooth-based tracking systems. The scanned devices are typically on-board vehicular electronics and consumer devices carried by the driver and/or passengers which use Bluetooth communications, and which then reasonably proxy for the vehicle itself. Not only does this model offer a compact visualisation of the distribution of intervals, it also supports an innovative temporal query mechanism that relies on geometries in the two-dimensional space. Methods for identifying the spot localization can be accomplished by combining multiple technologies. We propose a fixed-lag particle filter algorithm to process data incrementally. Click the Bluetooth tab, scroll down to the ‘Related Settings’ and click ‘More Bluetooth … Positioning is a propagation loss of a wireless technology, developed for obtaining the specific spot of a person. We conclude by arguing why Bluetooth tracking offers significant advantages for tracking mass event visitors with respect to other and more prominent technologies, and outline some of its remaining deficiencies. This paper describes an experiment conducted in a medium- sized room in which six zones have been identified and two Bluetooth transmitters were installed. Springer, Heidelberg (2005), Graumann, D., Lara, W., Hightower, J., Borriello, G.: Real-world implementation of the location stack: the universal location framework. This work comprehensively investigates the power consumption of hard drives to determine typical runtime power profiles. A case study of the Ghent Festivities event (1.5 million visitors over 10 days) is described in detail and preliminary results are shown to give an indication of the added value of the methodology for stakeholders of the event. In this chapter, the most important Bluetooth properties related to indoor localisation are experimentally investigated from a statistical perspective. We describe a sensor-driven, or sentient, platform for context-aware computing that enables applications to follow mobile users as they move around a building. participants). In outdoor localization, global positioning systems (GPS) has been widely used. Twitter is planning to add location-based information to every tweet, while Firefox 3.5 is location aware, along with many web search engines. UbiComp 2005. It is then up to the recipient to use the conventional telephone system to call-back confirming the signal and determine the required action. Abstract. Bluetooth Discoverability. Robert Harle. I thought discoverability only turned on when opening the Bluetooth panel on the settings app, but my phone is constantly discoverable via Bluetooth by other devices even after I have closed … Indoor localisation is the state-of-the-art to identify and observe a moving human or an object inside a building. Two important elements of an appropriate response are an understanding of the user's context and anticipatory capability. To be widely adopted, location-aware computing must be as effortless, familiar and rewarding as web search tools like Google. Used together with the Lower Address Part (LAP), which is present in all frames transmitted, this enables tracking of the piconet master (e.g., the car BT interface, or a smartphone when connected to a headset), thereby debunking the privacy guarantees of BT. La première présente les technologies PAN et WAN, l’état de l’art des méthodes de Wireless Physical Tracking et les contre mesures adoptés. The normalized error obtained through our incremental inference is comparable to that of full batch inference, whilst the execution time is more than 100 times faster. S. Hay, and R. Harle. We firstly define the problem of Beacon Deployment for Positioning (BDP) and provide several theoretic bounds on the number of required beacons to gain sufficient understanding on its performance behaviour. Unfortunately existing systems that achieve the kind of sub-metre accuracies desired by many location-aware applications require large amounts of infrastructure to be installed into the environment. The BDP problem is further formulated into an integer linear program (ILP) and solved in extensive case studies. Due to the relatively long interval between the available consecutive Bluetooth signal strength measurements, the authors propose a method of information filtering with speed detection, which combines the estimation information from the RSSI measurements with the prior information from the motion model. This paper provides a meta-review that performed a comprehensive compilation of 62 survey papers in the area of indoor positioning. PDF document, by Simon Hay and Robert Harle. : Place lab: Device positioning using radio beacons in the wild. We have collected signal strength information from both IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth wireless network technologies, developed and applied algorithms for determining location using data for each wireless technology, and then used a simple algorithm for fusing the location estimates from both technologies to try to enhance the accuracy of the location estimates. Three major techniques to determine a given location are identified. In the final section, a self-designed autonomous SLAM robot platform is introduced to be able to carry out the Bluetooth RSS data collecting. However, because of the harsh indoor conditions, current indoor localisation systems remain either too expensive or not accurate enough. All rights reserved. This affects signal intensity and therefore limits th e practicality of traditional fingerprinting approaches bas ed on receiver signal strength (RSSI) measurements. These include triangulation, which uses multiple distance measurements between known points; proximity measuring nearness to a known set of points; and scene analysis, which examines a view from a particular vintage point. ACM Transactions on Information Systems 10(1), 91–102 (1992), Harle, R., Hopper, A.: The potential for location-aware power management. The discovery of context is important for context-aware applications in pervasive computing. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, … The field tests show that the new algorithm proposed applying information filter with speed detection improves the horizontal positioning accuracy of indoor navigation with about 17% compared to the static fingerprinting positioning method, achieving a 4.2 m positioning accuracy on the average, and about 16% improvement compared to the point Kalman filter. A recurrent neural network is developed to solve the problem distributively in real time. However, not all location technologies will operate everywhere (e.g. A key issue is the automatic distribution of user interface (UI) components among co-located devices. Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability: Search for a title, author or keyword: Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability. 59–68 (1999), Want, R., Hopper, A., Falcao, V., Gibbons, J.: The Active Badge location system. In the legacy system, the interaction requires certain explicit configuration from the user. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices … Research: Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability, Simon Hay. the area of interest. C’est autour de ce contexte que s’articule cette thèse divisée en deux parties. 1032–1043 (2004), Schilit, B.N., LaMarca, A., Borriello, G., Griswold, W., McDonald, D., Lazowska, E., Balachandran, A., Hong, J., Iverson, V.: Challenge: Ubiquitous location-aware computing and the place lab initiative. Ces dispositifs ubiquitaires et équipés de plusieurs interfaces sans fil de communication, sont rapidement devenus indispensables dans la vie quotidienne des utilisateurs avec une utilisation intensive. one or more of the meta-features, effectively revealing preferences of Such protocols usually aim at minimizing communication overhead, evenly distributing roles among the participating nodes, as well as controlling the network topology. We present the design and implementation of the Horus WLAN location determination system. This traffic description tools is therefore paramount for traffic engineering applications. To tackle this problem, in this paper, we investigate the position inference of phones without GPS according to Bluetooth connectivity and positions of beacon phones. An alternative representation of time intervals is the triangular model (TM), which represents time intervals as points in a two-dimensional space. Dept. However, this requires labeled training data, is unable to predict never-seen-before activity and fails to adapt to the continuing growth of data over time. Location information is useful for mobile phones. This is a preview of subscription content, Hightower, J., Borriello, G.: Location systems for ubiquitous computing. (eds.) LoCA, volume 5561 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, page 120-137. By analysis of the real world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the clustering problem, regarding adapting to environmental conditions and the quality of topology control. Unlike in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), where address randomization is a feature available to manufactures, BT addresses are not randomized because they are largely believed to be immune to tracking attacks.
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