Students would be taught factual information for mastery. In order to give the student as much accurate information as quickly and effectively as possible, the realist may advocate the use of teaching machines to remove the teacher’s bias from factual presentation. Its very formalism was also its greatest weakness since it allowed a teacher slavishly to develop a lesson with allowed the rigid teacher to teach rigidly. A teacher should be such that he himself be educated and well versed with the customs of belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends of all ages and places. Students to be taught to analyze rather than to construct. John Amos Comenius in his great didactic describes the unique function of the school in a manner which will symbolize modern realism. Education must explain to the pupil how he is related to the world of man and to the world of nature. They consider living and un living all objective to be organs and the development of organs is the main objective and all round development of the objects is the main characteristic of education. Thus, to teach moral absolutes and natural laws is a highly questionable procedure. Then he should gain some familiarity with the great classics of his own and of world literature and art. The teacher, for the realist, is simply a guide. and this new outlook is termed as Realism. The entire knowledge should be gained after experience. The aim of education according to realism is to give to the pupil a complete knowledge and understanding of human society human nature, motives and institutions. The Realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and mathematics. Supports restricted freedom of the child. शिक्षण प्रक्रिया में शिक्षक को अनेक कार्य एक साथ करने पड़ते हैं जैसे लिखना, प्रश्न पूछना, स्पष्ट करना, प्रदर्शन करना... classical literature should be studied but not for studying its form and style but for its content and ideas it contained. The ultimate reality is the world of physical objects. As we have a slogan in Naturalism- ‘ Back to Nature ‘ – in Realism we have a slogan-‘ Things rather than words ‘. But for the realist, the good life is equated with one which is in tune with the overarching order of natural law. Greater stress should be laid upon the observation of nature and the education of science. It is not at all uncommon to find realists advocating a behavioristic psychology. Realism fails to deal with social change. The teacher, for the realist, is simply a guide. In order to be freedom it must be free to make us miserable. The formula for it was "Universalia ante rem." Realism has vehemently opposed withdrawal from life. Within education, realism can be seen through proponents of experimentalism which emphasizes students have various experiences as part of their education. Child Development and Pedagogy (English Medium), Teaching of Social Studies (English Medium), Teaching of Social Studies (Hindi Medium), सी टी ई टी नोट्स: बाल विकास एवं शिक्षाशास्त्र, सामान्य ज्ञान – General Knowledge In Hindi. In fact, real knowledge comes only when the organism can organize the data of experience. But he insists that the prime goal of all school activities should be the development of intelligence. Students must also demonstrate the ability to think critically and scientifically, using observation and experimentation. The third principle of selfhood, self-realization supplements freedom as such with value concerns. In realism there is little attention for developing an educational theory. The laws of nature, the realist believes, are most readily understood through the subjects of nature, namely the sciences in all their many branches. Educational realism came into the scene as a protest against the excessive formalism of the humanists and the religious reformers. Idealism is the school of educational thought promoted by Plato in 400 B.C. There is too much emphasis on the individual in realism .Some of them place too much emphasis on of the complexity and interdependence of modern society. Realists do not believe in general and common aims of education. The self has form as well as continuity. It, however, asserts that ‘Man is finite' and learning is necessary for a finite man. For Herbart, education was applied psychology. Then how does our illusion arise ? 6. The aim of education should be to teach truth rather than beauty, to understand the present practical life. Most of the propositions of traditional metaphysics are relegated to the realm of irrelevancy. Whenever we allow any person or group of persons to tell us what is Truth and what is not Truth, and permit them the authority to force this point of view on us, we are in danger of losing the very essence of the truly democratic society. The realist is unable to answer these questions satisfactorily. The Critical Realists have solved the problem of error, but in doing so through the use of an intermediary or vehicle of knowledge; they have created a whole new host of problems in terms of defining and explaining the nature of the vehicle. III. These are the appetitive principle the principle of self-determination the principle of self-realization and the principle of self-integration. For the realist, the world is as it is, and the job of schools would Thus, the realism has brought great effect in various fields of education. Human culture must give direction and form to his basic potentialities. The appetitive principle, mentioned first, has to do with the physiological base of personality. Idealism. He has some feelings, some desires and some powers. Realists decry expressionistic discipline and advocate self-discipline to make good adjustment in the... (iii) Teacher:. Reality, according to Aristotle was distinguishable into form and matter. The focus is on the body/objects. The question arises- Is there no power behind this material world? New Realists, particularly the American school, rejected this notion, giving mind no special status and viewing it as part of nature. And each one has different perspectives. Education is that which makes a man happy by getting acquaintance with real circumstances of life, create capacity for struggling with adverse situation in life. This theory states that a thing is true is as it corresponds to the real world. He must have full mastery of the knowledge of present life. All these cannot be overlooked. Realism was a revival of the Platonic doctrine that ideas are the only real things. Both the New Realists and the Critical Realists failed to provide a satisfactory answer to the problem of error. Educational realism is the belief that we should study logic, critical thinking, and the scientific method to teach students to perceive and understand reality… There are articles on Plato, Aristotle, John Dewey, and Rousseau among others. Realistic education is connected with the needs of life. In order to give the student as much accurate information as quickly and effectively as possible, the realist may advocate the use of teaching machines to remove the teacher’s bias from factual presentation. Under the realism philosophy of education, teachers must offer adequate teaching materials to the students based on their developmental levels. Plato thought … Realism admits real feelings and needs of life on the one hand, gives no place to imagination and sentiment, on the other. The one functions largely at the level of sense perception, the other more especially at the conceptual level. Now wherever that situation comes, response will be the same; this is the fact. Aristotle, a student of Plato who broke with his mentor’s idealist philosophy, is called the father of both Realism and the scientific method. That is why realists often appear to be skeptics, Pessimists and objectionists. The real world exists, and the teacher is responsible for introducing the student to it. Faith and hope will not have validity as religious attitudes because they will have no real object.. The sense realism in education emphasizes the training of the senses. Education should not produce men who are unfit in social life. In fact, real knowledge comes only when the organism can organize the data of experience. The aim is not to study the form and style of old literature to have mastery over it. This area of philosophy focuses on the nature of reality. Wild goes on to point out the orderly nature of the universe and indicate that it is possible to find certain “solidly grounded” moral principles, and that these, along with the core of subject matter “based on the nature of our human world, should be given to everyone.”. According to humanistic realism, classical literature should be studied but not for studying its form and style but for its content and ideas it contained. Since the concern of this position is with the known, and with the transmission of the known, it tends to focus on the conservation of the cultural heritage. The term educational realism came into existence to specify the particular application of realism in the field of education. Aims at social efficiency . Introduction: Just as Naturalism comes on the Educational scene as a protest against systems of education that have become artificial. The New Realist position is the weaker of the two since direct cognition does not permit error and the rationale employed by Wild, that “Error is the creation of the erring subject” is most unsatisfactory if the mind is viewed purely as relational with no contents of its own with which to create error. Our experience has some continuity throughout changing events and places and in order to explain this we must recognize that the self is a common factor in all of these experiences even though there are gaps in consciousness such as when we are asleep or under anesthesia. Generalization: The drawing of inferences from the materials and an attempt to find a general rule, principal, or law. Here the realist is dumb completely. These powers of the child shall have to be given due regarding at the time of planning education. Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. Both the teacher and the student are spectators, but while the student looks at the world through innocent eyes, the teacher must explain it to him, as well as he is able, from his vantage point of increased sophistication. This does not mean that the realist denies the validity of symbolic knowledge. A beautiful art form reflects the logic and order of the universe. It is right, but there should be no indifference towards art and literature. In realism, human acquire knowledge by inculcating knowledge to the minds because in. “The philosophy of education is the philosophical study of education and its problems … its central subject matter is education, and its methods are those of philosophy." Realism is interested in objects and facts. Realist educators encourage students to draw their observations and conclusions from the world around them, rather than confining themselves to an analysis of their own ideas. It really exists, “Our experience is not independent but determines reaction to the external objects. Intelligence is that human function which enables one to acquire knowledge. Senses are the gateways of knowledge and learning takes place the operation of the senses. According to sense-realists nature is the treasure house of all knowledge and this knowledge can be obtained through the training of the senses. Even in the social sciences we find the realist’s conception of the universe shaping the subject matter, for they deal with the mechanical and natural forces which bear on human behaviour. In their method, the realist depends on motivation the student. Of the several, different answers to the problem of GOD, it is likely that everyone is upheld by some member of the family of realists. He must be able to expose children to the problems of life and the world around. This heritage is viewed as all those things that man has learned about natural laws and the order of the universe over untold centuries. Greater stress should be laid upon the observation of nature and the education of science.Neo-realists aim at developing all round development of the objects with the development of their organs. practice. Sense-realism- attached more importance to the study of natural sciences and contemporary social life. These powers of the child shall have to be given due regarding at the time of planning education. He is neither pessimist, nor optimist. According to them aims are specific to each individual and his perspectives. Suffice it to say that some philosophers, as well asfocusing inward on the abstract philosophical issues that concernthem, are drawn outwards to discuss or comment on issues that are morecommonly regarded … From this very general philosophical position, the Realist would tend to view the Learner as a sense mechanism, the Teacher as a demonstrator, the Curriculum as the subject matter of the physical world (emphasizing mathematics, science, etc. The realist supports this negligence The curriculum proposed by most scientific realists is one-sided since empirical knowledge holds a position superior to that of the humanistic studies. The teacher organizes and presents content systematically within a discipline, demonstrating use of criteria in making decisions. There is so much variety, in fact, that realists could never be grouped together if they did not have certain common ground. gives stress on the subject physics and on humanistic feelings, physics and psychology, sociology, economics, Ethics, Politics, history, Geography, agriculture varied arts, languages and so on, are the main subjects to be studied according to the Neo-realists. Thus, mind becomes the relationship between the subject and the object. He has to be trained to become a man only. It is the physical world in which we live that makes up reality. As we have a slogan in Naturalism- ‘Back to Nature’ – in Realism we have… Broudy describes the pupil by elaborating four principles which, according to him, comprise the essence of the human self. All these cannot be overlooked. There is the constant danger that there will arise a class of persons who be the ones with the responsibility of identifying and arbitrating questions concreting absolutes. From this very general philosophical position, the Realist would tend to view the Learner as a sense mechanism, the Teacher as a demonstrator, the Curriculum as the subject matter of the physical world (emphasizing mathematics, science, etc.