When there is an irregular accumulation of melanocytes in the skin, freckles appear. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. Specifically, you will learn about: The functions of the organs of the integumentary system - the skin, hair, and nails - including protecting the body, helping to regulate homeostasis, and sensing and interacting with the external world. The eponychium helps to seal the edges of the nail to prevent infection of the underlying tissues. Describe the structure of the layers of the skin. indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one. They work together to carry out all these functions. Thus, the amount of melanin present in our skin is dependent on a balance between available sunlight and folic acid destruction, and protection from UV radiation and vitamin D production. 2. Vasoconstriction is the process of smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels in the dermis contracting to reduce the flood of blood to the skin. The hypodermis serves as the flexible connection between the skin and the underlying muscles and bones as well as a fat storage area. The integumentary system has two main parts: the skin and its accessory structures. But which of them are first to spring to your mind? View the University of Michigan WebScope at http://virtualslides.med_umich.edu/Histology/Basic%20Tissues/Epithelium%20and%20CT/106_HISTO_40X.svs/view.apml? The integumentary system includes the skin and the skin derivatives hair, nails, and glands. Learn. Arrector pilli muscle. At this point the cells are so far removed from the nutrients that diffuse from the blood vessels in the dermis that the cells go through the process of apoptosis. Melanocytes in the epidermis produce the pigment melanin, which absorbs UV light before it can pass through the skin. Bethany_Thiele. The integumentary system 1. Adipose also helps to insulate the body by trapping body heat produced by the underlying muscles. Sebaceous glands are found in every part of the skin except for the thick skin of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. If you zoom on the cells at the outermost layer of this section of skin, what do you notice about the cells? Innerbody Research is the largest home health and wellness guide online, helping over one million visitors each month learn about health products and services. The average person’s skin weighs 10 pounds and has a surface area of almost 20 square feet. Therefore, its accuracy as a health indicator can be called into question in individuals who are extremely physically fit. View this animation to learn more about layers of the skin. Hypodermis. The skin consists of two main layers and a closely associated layer. The stratum corneum is the most superficial layer of the epidermis and is the layer exposed to the outside environment (see Figure 5.5). adam_dufner PLUS. Hemoglobin is most noticeable in skin coloration during times of vasodilation when the capillaries of the dermis are open to carry more blood to the skin’s surface. This chapter will introduce the structure and functions of the integumentary system, as well as some of the diseases, disorders, and injuries that can affect this system. When UV light present in sunlight or tanning bed lights strikes the skin, it penetrates through the outer layers of the epidermis and strikes some of the molecules of 7-dehydrocholesterol, converting it into vitamin D3. The keratinized component of the hair occupies the central cavity of the follicle, and appears yellow-brown when present. This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Flashcards. The outer layer or epidermis is formed by an epithelium and is of ectodermal origin. Hemoglobin is the red pigment found in red blood cells, but can be seen through the layers of the skin as a light red or pink color. The stratum lucidum is made of several rows of clear, dead keratinocytes that protect the underlying layers. The epidermis is an avascular region of the body, meaning that it does not contain any blood or blood vessels. Melanin occurs in two primary forms. The skin is made of multiple layers of cells and tissues, which are held to underlying structures by connective tissue (Figure 5.2). When these electrolytes reach high levels in the blood, their presence in sweat also increases, helping to reduce their presence within the body. In all vertebrates including humans, this covering layer is non-other than the skin and its appendages, which are called as the integumentary system in difficult scientific terms. Unstained epidermis samples do not exhibit this characteristic appearance. They are: Epidermis: It is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer also contains lymphatic capillaries, nerve fibers, and touch receptors called the Meissner corpuscles. The most common electrolytes found in sweat are sodium and chloride, but potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions may be excreted as well. At the same time it gives communication with the outside, enabling an organism to live in a Similarly, Addison’s disease can stimulate the release of excess amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which can give the skin a deep bronze color. The hair shaft consists of the part of the hair that is found outside of the skin. Carotene, found in plants such as carrots, can accumulate in the stratum corneum, and hypodermis can give the skin an orange hue. The integumentary system is the system of the body that includes the skin, hair, nails, and structures within the skin such as glands. What causes acne? The integument system is an organ system that distinguishes with relationships that inform about animals or humans from the environment. Skin. The density of these sensory receptors in the skin varies throughout the body, resulting in some regions of the body being more sensitive to touch, temperature, or pain than other regions. to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. It contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and other structures, such as hair follicles and sweat glands. Structurally, the epidermis is only about a tenth of a millimeter thick but is made of 40 to 50 rows of stacked squamous epithelial cells. ksyrett. Alcohol causes vasodilation in the dermis, leading to increased perspiration as more blood reaches sweat glands. The color of skin is influenced by a number of pigments, including melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. Under the nail body is a layer of epidermis and dermis known as the nail bed. 4595 times. The digestion of apocrine sweat by bacteria produces body odor. In addition to secreting sweat to cool the body, eccrine sudoriferous glands of the skin also excrete waste products out of the body. Learners examine the structure and function of skin including the production of melanin. This leads to a loss of color in patches (Figure 5.10). Underlying the papillary layer is the much thicker reticular layer, composed of dense, irregular connective tissue. Online. This movement results in more air being trapped under the hairs to insulate the surface of the body. The integumentary system is an organ system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. This superficial layer of the dermis projects into the stratum basale of the epidermis to form finger-like dermal papillae (see Figure 5.7). The integumentary system consists of the skin, hair, nails, the subcutaneous tissue below the skin,and assorted glands.The most obvious function of the integumentary system is the protection that the skin gives to underlying tissues. The keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum begin the synthesis of keratin and release a water-repelling glycolipid that helps prevent water loss from the body, making the skin relatively waterproof. The integumentary system has two main parts: the skin and its accessory structures. http://virtualslides.med.umich.edu/Histology/EMsmallCharts/3%20Image%20Scope%20finals/065%20-%20Epidermis_001.svs/view.apml, http://openstaxcollege.org/files/textbook_version/low_res_pdf/13/col11496-lr.pdf, Describe the integumentary system and the role it plays in homeostasis, Describe the layers of the skin and the functions of each layer, Describe the accessory structures of the skin and the functions of each, Describe the changes that occur in the integumentary system during the aging process, Discuss several common diseases, disorders, and injuries that affect the integumentary system, Explain treatments for some common diseases, disorders, and injuries of the integumentary system, Identify the components of the integumentary system, Identify and describe the hypodermis and deep fascia, Describe the role of keratinocytes and their life cycle, Describe the role of melanocytes in skin pigmentation. Gross Anatomy of the Integumentary System The skin is made up of two mutually dependent layers that are distinguished based on their structure and location. Skin that has four layers of cells is referred to as “thin skin.” From deep to superficial, these layers are the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. Sebaceous gland. The integumentary system plays several roles in the body including: 1. See more ideas about Integumentary system, Skin anatomy, Anatomy and physiology. Below the epidermis, and above the hypodermis, this section of skin contains many structures including blood vessels. The integumentary system refers to the skin and its accessory structures, and it is responsible for much more than simply lending to your outward appearance. These structures are hair follicles #107 Webscope sectioned transversely or tangentially at different levels. Test. You must consult your own medical professional. Skin also has accessory structures or appendages including the hair, nails and glands. Apoptosis is programmed cell death where the cell digests its own nucleus and organelles, leaving only a tough, keratin-filled shell behind. Spell. Hair helps to protect the body from UV radiation by preventing sunlight from striking the skin. The integumentary system is a system full to the brim with interesting structures. The skin is the main organ of the integumentary system. The integumentary systemincludes the skin and the skinderivatives hair, nails, andglands. The integument is composed of layers that may be of single cell thickness, as in many invertebrates, or multiple cell thickness, as in some invertebrates and all vertebrates. The integument as an organ: 3. Recall that melanin helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation. The integument as an organ: 3. These cells are densely packed with eleiden, a clear protein rich in lipids, derived from keratohyalin, which gives these cells their transparent (i.e., lucid) appearance and provides a barrier to water. Liver disease or liver cancer can cause the accumulation of bile and the yellow pigment bilirubin, leading to the skin appearing yellow or jaundiced (jaune is the French word for “yellow”). Anatomy & Physiology: BIO 161 / 162. Match. Other changes in the appearance of skin coloration can be indicative of diseases associated with other body systems. Remember that there are 4 basic types of tissuein the body: connective, epithelial, nervous, and muscle tissue. What are the basic functions of each of these layers? A sudden drop in oxygenation can affect skin color, causing the skin to initially turn ashen (white). The functions of the integumentary system are: 1. 2. Lamellar corpuscles found deep in the dermis sense pressure and vibration of the skin. Fingernails and toenails reinforce and protect the end of the digits and are used for scraping and manipulating small objects. Learn. Fingerprints are unique to each individual and are used for forensic analyses because the patterns do not change with the growth and aging processes. Ceruminous glands are special exocrine glands found only in the dermis of the ear canals. Hair is composed of columns of dead, keratinized cells bound together by extracellular proteins. The cells of the stratum basale include cuboidal keratinocytes, melanocytes, and Merkel cells. The dermis is mostly made of dense irregular connective tissue along with nervous tissue, blood, and blood vessels. First, they are all parts of the integumentary system, which is your skin and all its accessory structures. The functions of the integumentary system are involved with … If you look in the mirror you see it, if you look anywhere on your body you see and if you look around you in the outside world, you see it. Integumentary system questions If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Integumentary System DRAFT. The increased keratinization (also called cornification) of the cells in this layer gives it its name. Sudoriferous glands are exocrine glands found in the dermis of the skin and commonly known as sweat glands. However, in these cases the effect on skin color has nothing do with the skin’s pigmentation. Integumentary System DRAFT. We already know what organs are in the integumentary system. The dermis - comprised of highly vascular connective tissue and sensory nerve fibres. Keratin is an intracellular fibrous protein that gives hair, nails, and skin their hardness and water-resistant properties. Acc … 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System Your skin is a vital part of your life and appearance (a–d). The integumentary system consists of the skin and accessory structures, such as hair, nails, and glands. Ceruminous glands produce a waxy secretion known as cerumen to protect the ear canals and lubricate the eardrum. They work together to carry out all these functions. Skin also has accessory structures or appendages including the hair, nails and glands. As the keratinocytes reach the stratum granulosum, they have become much flatter and are almost completely filled with keratin. Melanocytes produce the pigment melanin to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation and sunburn. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (36) Meissner's corpuscle . Some people choose to embellish it with … They are: Epidermis: It is the outermost layer of the skin. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. The keratinocytes that compose the stratum lucidum are dead and flattened (see Figure 5.5). The skin is, f… In the thick skin of the hands and feet, there is a layer of skin superficial to the stratum granulosum known as the stratum lucidum. It is composed of primarily of connective tissue underneath a layer of epithelial tissue. Flashcards. 5. Hair also insulates the body by trapping warm air around the skin. Created by. Temperature regulation. With a prolonged reduction in oxygen levels, dark red deoxyhemoglobin becomes dominant in the blood, making the skin appear blue, a condition referred to as cyanosis (kyanos is the Greek word for “blue”). It is interesting to note that the “spiny” nature of this layer is an artifact of the staining process. In the adult human body, the skin makes up about 16 percent of body weight and covers an area of 1.5 to 2 m2. Integumentary System Labeling. Although periodic accumulation of excess fat may have provided an evolutionary advantage to our ancestors, who experienced unpredictable bouts of famine, it is now becoming chronic and considered a major health threat. set of organs that forms the external covering of the body and protects it from many threats such as infection The integument is the body’s largest organ and accounts for 15% of body weight. Eccrine sweat is delivered via a duct to the surface of the skin and is used to lower the body’s temperature through evaporative cooling. Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Human Body Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Chapter 6: Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System Chapter 7: Axial Skeleton Chapter 8: Appendicular Skeleton Chapter 9: … The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Integumentary System Facts: The skin is the human body’s first line of defense against microorganisms, parasites and the environment in general.. The follicles of hairs have small bundles of smooth muscle attached to their base called arrector pili muscles. Dark-skinned individuals produce more melanin than those with pale skin. The integumentary system is a system full to the brim with interesting structures. Hemoglobin is another pigment most noticeable in people with little melanin. The integumentary system consists of the skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves. Langerhans cells are the third most common cells in the epidermis and make up just over 1% of all epidermal cells. Fat distribution changes as our bodies mature and age. Free nerve endings may be sensitive to pain, warmth, or cold. Sweat produced by eccrine sudoriferous glands normally contains mostly water with many electrolytes and a few other trace chemicals. Superficial to stratum basale is the stratum spinosum layer where Langerhans cells are found along with many rows of spiny keratinocytes. As a system it has contributions from all embryonic layers. In order to be considered closed, a wound has to have full re-epithelialization, defined as new skin growth, and no drainage or weeping from the pores. The few hairless parts of the body include the palmar surface of the hands, plantar surface of the feet, lips, labia minora, and glans penis. In the palmar surface of the hands and plantar surface of the feet, the skin is thicker than in the rest of the body and there is a fifth layer of epidermis. The nail body is the visible external portion of the nail. Edit. Authors. However, it’s not the only part. This article will discuss all of these components in detail together with some clinical notes about them and the integumentary system as … Collagen fibers provide structure and tensile strength, with strands of collagen extending into both the papillary layer and the hypodermis. Watch this video to learn about the challenges these children and their family face. The skin provides a barrier between ourselves and our environment, it also contains specializations in different regions including hair, nails, glands and sensory receptors.